Submitted by: mohamed ramadan
Implemented country: Egypt
Title: Recycling and purifying of wastewater
Recycling and reusing of wastewater has become one of the most important parts of water management. The removal of pathogens, nutrients, suspended solids and other organic pollutants is necessary for a safe and healthy environment. Wastewater treatment by filtration is considered to be one of the most common processes to produce high quality water and effluent which can be reused for various purposes. The efficiency of the filtration process depends on the chemical and physical properties of the filter and the nature of the materials that need to be removed. In recent years, people returned to use sand filters (SFs) in water treatment due to their simplicity, low cost, and efficiency. Some scientists tried to use a biofilm to increase the efficiency of the sand filter. This type of sand filter is called biological slow sand filter. The filtration process needs up to several days to obtain good water without pathogens and to be certain that the biofilm didn't pass with the water. In this project, miswak and titanium dioxide were added to the sand filter to increase its efficiency and performance. Miswak is a natural material used in many Middle Eastern countries for brushing the teeth. Lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses are the main constituents of the miswak. Lately it has been used in wastewater treatment as it is considered a cheap natural antiseptic, enzyme inhibitor and detergent, moreover it has the ability to adsorb a high capacity. Titanium dioxide nanomaterial can be used in many applications, especially in water treatment. It is cheap and characterized by several properties like non-toxicity, adsorption of heavy metals, photo catalysis, and killing microbes. Three filters were designed (SF-1, SF-2, and SF-3). The results indicated that chemical oxygen demand was reduced by 47.54%, 90.94%, and 95.47 % respectively. Moreover, the total suspended solids were removed by 98.05%. Also, the total organic carbon, surfactants, biochemical oxygen demand and bacteria were reduced when the three filters were used. They are therefore a suitable alternative to the time-consuming traditional sand filter.